Some people suffer from droopy eyelids. It can be due to old age or trauma. Many times it can be present since birth. This results in obstruction of vision and subsequent improper maturation of vision in children. When it is obstructing the vision or when there is a cosmetic concern, such droopy eyelid can be corrected surgically.
Sometimes eye eyelids can be turned outwards or inwards. This can lead to either watering of the eye or excessive foreign body sensation in the eye due to rubbing of lashes on the eye. These conditions can be corrected by surgery.
Some people may suffer from inability to close the eye due to injury to a nerve close to the ear. Such an abnormality causes excessive dryness of the eye surface and can lead to ulceration of the black portion of the eyeball. It has to be treated with plenty of lubrication and surgery.
There can be outgrowths on the eyelid which can sometimes be cancerous and spread to other parts of the body. Some are benign and do not spread to other parts of the body. These growth need to be excised and the resulting eyelid defect has to be corrected by special lid reconstruction techniques. This is the job of an oculoplastic surgeon who is specially trained in plastic surgery around the eye.
There is a fine passage from the eyelids to the nose which drains the fluid produced by the lacrimal gland. Sometimes, this gets obstructed which leads to watering and discharge from the eye. Not uncommonly, such patients suffer from bouts of excess pain and swelling in the inner angle of the eye. The condition is relieved by doing DCR in which the passages are re-opened into the nose after making a hole in the bone.
Rarely, tumours develop around the eyeball or behind it. They need to be removed surgically as they cause outward protrusion of the eyeball or reduce vision by pressing on the nerve of the eye. They have to be removed by very highly specialized surgery called orbitotomy. This is also done by oculoplastic surgeons.